云付通支付牌照:【英语】高考重点归纳——数词与主谓一致

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英语】高考重点归纳

——数词与主谓一致

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高考对数词的考查侧重于:1.数词表示确切数目和不确切数目的区别;2.数词复数的特殊用法;3.dozenscore 的特殊用法。主谓一致是历年高考试题中的主要考查内容之一,它主要以单项填空的形式来呈现,包括语法一致、意义一致和就近一致等,同时还涉及动词的时态、语态等。尽管近几年全国各地高考对主谓一致这一语法现象的考查频率不高,但在今后的高考试题中还是会出现的。考生在掌握主谓一致的基本原则的同时,要特别注意意义一致原则,分数、百分数、不定式、动名词、从句等用作主语时的主谓一致和定语从句中的主谓一致情况。

第一,数词的基本考点

1. hundred, thousandmillion的用法

hundred, thousand, million, billion等词的前面有基数词或several修饰时,hundred,thousand, million, billion等只能用单数形式;注意hundred, thousand,million, billion等词前不能用many,若表示不确定数目的数百、数千、数百万等时,要用它们的复数形式,还要加上of。

 

2. dozenscore的用法

(1)dozen (一打,十二),score (二十)与具体数词或与many, several 等连用时,后不加s,所修饰的名词前常省去of。如:two dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋,many dozen pencils好多打铅笔;dozen, score的复数形式后接of时,表示"许多",是概数。如:dozens of eggs几十个鸡蛋,scores of pencils几十支铅笔。此外,有"数词+score +of+名词"这种用法。如:two score of eggs 40个鸡蛋, three score of people 60个人。

(2)当所修饰的名词之前有限定词these, those, my, your等或是修饰人称代词宾格them, us, you时,这时需要加of。如:two dozen of these pens, three score of them。

 

3.分数的表达法:分子用基数词,分母用序数词,若分子大于1,则分母用复数。如:one-fourth  (a quarter) 1/4              two-fifths 2/5

 

4.年龄表达法

表示某人的确切年龄,用"基数词+years old""基数词+of age"或者"at the age of+基数词",也可直接用基数词;表示某人几十多岁时,用"in ones + 逢十的基数词的复数(tens, twenties, thirties)"来表达。

 

5.年代表达法

表示"几十年代"时,在阿拉伯数字后加s或’s。

 

第二,主谓一致

 

1.名词作主语的数的问题

1)下列情况下的名词作主语时谓语动词用单数:①可数名词单数;不可数名词;②表示量的词当整体概念讲时; ③表示时间、距离、金钱、度量、容量、书名等整体概念的名词作主语时;④由and连接的两个或两个以上的单数名词作主语时,前面由不定代词every/each/no修饰名词;⑤and连接两个名词指同一个事物时;⑥the number of +复数名词作主语时;集合名词表整体时;⑦动名词(短语)、不定式、从句作主语时等。

2)下列情况下的名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数:①复数名词作主语;②集合名词作主语强调个体时。

 

2.代词作主语的数的问题

名词性物主代词后的谓语动词,既可以用单数,也可以用复数,这取决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。suchthe same用作指示代词时,应根据其所指的内容来决定谓语动词的单、复数。关系代词whothatwhich等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。但是,当先行词之前有the only, the very等修饰时,从句的谓语动词应用单数形式。

 

3.分数、百分数等修饰名词作主语时数的问题

(1)分数和百分数不能直接跟名词或代词,而是后跟"of+冠词/限定词+名词/代词",其后的谓语动词与后面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致。如:

Two fifths of the money was spent on books.

(2)"a great many/a large number of+复数名词"作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;"a great deal of/ a large amount of/a large sum of+不可数名词"作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;"many a+单数名词"作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

(3)"a large quantity of+名词"作主语时谓语动词的数要与名词的数保持一致。"largequantities of+名词"作主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式。

(4)"a/an+单数名词+and a half"作主语时,谓语动词常用单数;"one and a half+复数名词"作主语时,谓语动词常用单数。如:

A year and a half has passed.

One and a half apples is left on the table.

(5)" more than one+单数名词"作主语时,谓语动词常用单数;"more+名词复数+than one"作主语时,谓语动词常用复数。如:

More than one person was absent.

More students than one have been there.

 

第三,连接词与主谓一致

 

1.and连接的名词作主语

and连接的两个名词作主语,表示不同的人或事,谓语动词用复数; 指同一个人、物时,谓语动词用单数。如:

What he said and what he did have greatly encouraged the other students.

The famous writer and poet has given a talk twice.

②由no...and no..., each...and each..., many a...and many a...等构成复合主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

Many a desk and many a chair has been taken out of the classroom.

 

2.主语后面有as well as, rather than, like, but, except, besides, with, together with, along with, including, in addition to等连接的名词时,谓语动词的形式应根据它们前面的主语来确定。

 

3.or, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also...等连接两个或两个以上的并列主语时,采用就近一致原则,即谓语动词和与它最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。

 

附小贴士:

英语数量词修饰名词作定语

"基数词+名词(+形容词)"作定语,通常有以下两种形式:"不定冠词+基数词+连字符+单数名词+(连字符+形容词)+名词""基数词+名词的所有格+名词"。如a ten\|minute walk(=ten minuteswalk步行10分钟的路程)a 50\|meter\|wide road (一条50米宽的公路), an eight-year-old boy (=a boy of 8一个8岁的男孩)